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The bioaccumulation and fate of a branched 14C-p-nonylphenol isomer in Lymnaea stagnalis L.

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dc.contributor.author Lalah, Joseph O.
dc.contributor.author Behechti, Akbar
dc.contributor.author Severin, Gabriele F
dc.contributor.author Lenoir, Dieter
dc.contributor.author Günther, Klaus
dc.contributor.author Kettrup, Antonius
dc.contributor.author Schramm, Karl-Werner
dc.date.accessioned 2015-06-02T12:55:06Z
dc.date.available 2015-06-02T12:55:06Z
dc.date.issued 2003
dc.identifier.citation Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Volume 22, Issue 7, pages 1428–1436, July 2003 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc.5620220703/full
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/1258
dc.description.abstract A single branched isomer of p-nonylphenol, 4(3′,6′-dimethyl-3′-heptyl)-phenol, previously identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as one of the major constituent isomers in p-nonylphenol (constituting approximately 10% of all its isomers), was synthesized and used in studies of its bioaccumulation and excretion in the hermophroditic pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis L. Branched isomers of nonylphenol are perceived to have more estrogenlike toxicity than the straight-chain isomers in addition to being more resistant to biodegradation in the environment. With an average static exposure concentration of 104 μg/L (range: 92–116 μg/L) in water at 19°C for 8 d, the uptake of the compound was found to be fairly rapid, reaching a peak concentration of 23,548 μg/kg of whole tissue wet weight after 5 d and a peak bioaccumulation factor (BAFw) of 242 (5,562, based on lipid weight) after 3 d. The uptake data fitted into a logarithmic expression C(t) = 5,231 ln(t) + 11,956, where C(t) is the amount of residues accumulated in whole tissue in micrograms per kilogram tissue wet weight after a period of time, t, and t is the period of exposure in days. By determination of the excretion of 14C-residues released in water and in feces, an average loss of 96% of the accumulated residues was achieved after 22 d of continuous exposure to clean water. By first-order kinetics analysis of the excretion data, an average half-life of excretion of 4.9 d was obtained. By high-performance liquid chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, a catechol metabolite, 4(3′,6′-dimethyl-3′-heptyl)-catechol, was detected in tissue extracts (after hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase) and in feces, in addition to the parent isomer, suggesting that the isomer may have been metabolized by glucuronic acid conjugation and hydroxylation at the ortho position of its phenolic ring. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Branched nonylphenol isomer en_US
dc.subject Fate en_US
dc.subject Lymnaea en_US
dc.title The bioaccumulation and fate of a branched 14C-p-nonylphenol isomer in Lymnaea stagnalis L. en_US
dc.type Article en_US

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